Tuesday, March 16, 2010

#36: White Heat (Raoul Walsh, 1949)

Released: September 2, 1949 (U.S.)

Director: Raoul Walsh; Screenplay: Ivan Goff, Ben Roberts, based on story by Virginia Kellogg; Cinematography: Sidney Hickox; Studio: Warner Bros.; Producer: Louis F. Edelman; Music: Max Steiner

Cast: James Cagney (Cody Jarrett), Virginia Mayo (Verna Jarrett), Margaret Wycherly (Ma Jarrett), Edmond O’Brien (Vic Pardo/Hank Fallon), Steve Cochran (Big Ed Somers), John Archer (Philip Evans)

- "Made it, Ma! Top of the world!"

If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it… and I stand by what I wrote about White Heat nearly 10 months ago (has it been that long?). In these early days of Goodfella’s, one of the first projects that I did was a series of posts on four of James Cagney’s most famous gangster films – The Public Enemy, Angels With Dirty Faces and White Heat. Even after the completion of the Year’s Best Countdown, I still look back fondly on this Cagney series and think some of the best stuff that I’ve done on the blog happened there. So, instead of just posting a condensed version of a review I’ve already written, I think it’s worth posting it again, edited only to keep out things that are unnecessary in terms of the countdown. In this section, I’ll just add some general thoughts that tie White Heat into the noir countdown.

And I will also acknowledge at least one change of opinion from that original review. For whatever reason – possibly from trying not to fawn over every film yet reviewed on my still young blog – I rated White Heat at only 8/10 at that time. That was just too low. I’ve watched it since then, and while I still have a few Cagney films I prefer, if I were to put some sort of rating on it, it would have to be at least 9/10. It’s as good as any thriller or action film of the era and the bravura performance of Cagney as the infamous Cody Jarrett needs no introduction to any movie fan. It’s a minor issue I know, as ratings ultimately mean nothing, but I thought I should at least point it out.

This is another example that highlights the overlap between noir and gangster films. White Heat falls into either category – and ranks highly regardless of designation. The more Raoul Walsh that I watch, the more that I appreciate his genius. White Heat does not boast the usual amount of expressionistic light and interesting camera angles that are sprinkled throughout most noirs, but it still highlights the creativity of a great director. Watch the way that he films the opening train robbery. Or, most impressive, the high shots he uses in the prison dining hall to film Cody’s reaction to learning of his mother’s death. These are magnificent.

But, as I said, I don’t want to just repeat everything that I said earlier. This isn’t meant as a copout, but I think it works to simply re-post the review. It still applies for this countdown, even if it is much longer than the other entries.


In White Heat, James Cagney is reunited with director Raoul Walsh, a duo with a proven track record. But this is a different film from their previous effort, The Roaring Twenties, and not just because of the sadistic character played by Cagney. Most critics and observers refer to White Heat as the final chapter of the classic Warner Brothers gangster films. I contend (as I did in my earlier review of The Roaring Twenties), that this is not entirely accurate and that White Heat has actually moved into a different area of the crime drama. The Roaring Twenties contains all of the archetypal elements of the “classic” gangster film – big-city racketeers, syndicates, gang wars. White Heat, in contrast, has none of these. Cody Jarrett and his partners operate as a band of outlaws, actually more similar to the gangs of Jesse James and other western renegades than to Al Capone and Lucky Luciano.

This is not at all a criticism. I just think it’s necessary to recognize that this film, released in 1949, bears a closer resemblance to film noir than to previous gangster efforts. Obviously, these two genres are not mutually exclusive, and ultimately it’s an argument of semantics. But it's an interesting issue to ponder, especially because White Heat’s place in the gangster cycle is unquestioned and oftentimes overshadows the great effort that was The Roaring Twenties. Looking at White Heat from a slightly different vantage point allows both films to shine for their own unique reasons.

The fact that Raoul Walsh is directing means that the action sequences of the film are top quality. The first scenes of the film are spectacular. It opens with sweeping shots of rural California, with plumes of smoke shooting into the air from a locomotive as it weaves its way through the mountains. Simultaneously, Cody and his men are moving into position to hijack the train. As the inside men on board overtake workers, Cody and henchman position themselves on the tracks. Once the engineer unwittingly begins to bring the train to a stop precisely where the gang wants them, the stunning scene of Cody Jarrett leaping from an overpass onto the moving train commences the robbery. This is not the most celebrated scene in the film (I’ll let you guess which one that would be), but it is arguably the most visually appealing. The team makes off with $300,000 of federal money, but it is not a perfect job. Gang member Zuckie (Ford Rainey) is severely burned by steam from the engine, and his health steadily declines as the gang holes up in the California mountains to avoid law enforcement.

While hiding in the mountains, the principal characters are introduced and the personalities that will contribute to the conflict throughout the film are on full display. We meet Cody’s wife Verna (Virginia Mayo), a beautiful woman who loathes the lack of luxuries involved with life on the run. The various gang members are introduced, most notably Big Ed (Steve Cochran), a powerfully built underling who seems to have aspirations for control of the gang. Cody clearly has suspicions of this ambition, as well as the notion that Big Ed is trying to cozy up to Verna. Whenever the two come into close contact with each other – even for something innocuous as Verna pouring Big Ed a cup of coffee – Cody erupts in anger. Finally, and most importantly, is Ma Jarrett (Margaret Wycherly), the singular influence on the attitudes and actions of Cody. The elderly Ma distrusts everyone in the cabin other than her son, Verna included, and never hesitates to counsel caution and violence to keep Cody safe. Just witness her recommendation to Cody that they should not leave the injured Zuckie in the cabin to be found by police after the rest of the gang moves on. Her solution? Get rid of him. After all, he might talk.

It is in the cabin that another layer is added to the Cody Jarrett character, as he experiences a crippling headache that has him falling to the floor and grimacing in pain. Ma ushers him into a side bedroom so that the rest of the gang does not see him in such a helpless state. Cody is calmed by his mother and collects himself by sitting on his mother’s lap. This scene highlights the intriguing bond between mother and son, introducing something of an Oedipus dynamic to the relationship. Later in the film, when federal agents are discussing Cody, one remarks that as a child Cody would fake headaches in order to get his mother’s attention away from the rest of the family. But as he grew older, the imagined headaches became very real and reached the debilitating level that is witnessed in the cabin. Treasury Agent Philip Evans (John Archer) declares that “Any minute he’s apt to crack open at the seams.”

The opening train robbery essentially sets the stage for everything else that happens. After the gang leaves the mountains, they split up and continue to evade law enforcement. When the authorities finally catch up to Cody, he admits to pulling off a payroll robbery in a completely different state. By doing this, he hopes to receive less prison time than he would for the train robbery and the murder of one of the railroad men in the process. The Treasury agents on the train robbery case see through the ruse, but allow Cody to believe that he has outwitted them. Instead, the federal agents ensure that Cody’s story is accepted and that he is sent to prison in Illinois. Their plan is to install an undercover agent, Hank Fallon masquerading as inmate Vic Pardo (Edmond O’Brien), as Cody’s cellmate in Springfield and attempt to uncover where the $300,000 from the train robbery is stashed.

Jarrett befriends Pardo and the two hatch an escape plan, which Fallon reports to the authorities. However, events in the outside world complicate things. Jarrett had earlier learned from Ma that Verna and Big Ed had run off together. Over Cody’s objections, Ma declares that she will find the couple and personally take care of Big Ed. On the planned day of his breakout, Cody learns that his Ma is dead, and he goes ballistic. Despite being held in a straightjacket after the eruption, Cody still manages to proceed with an escape. But it does not follow the plan that Fallon had outlined to federal agents, and thus the group of inmates are successful. Once out of jail, Cody immediately sets out to find Verna and Big Ed. When he finally does, he learns that Big Ed is the murderer of his beloved Ma. Verna manages to convince him that she had nothing to do with the murder, but Big Ed is not so fortunate. After dispatching Big Ed and seizing back control of his gang – which now includes an undercover agent – Cody proceeds to plan a daring payroll robbery. The plan he constructs is his version of the legend of the Trojan Horse. The thieves will hide in an oil tanker and will be let into the oil refinery without any problems.

The robbery, predictably, does not go as planned. When Cody and his men enter the refinery, they are quickly surrounded by law enforcement. True to his reputation, Cody refuses to surrender and continues fighting as he sees his partners shot down. Retreating to the top of a large tank of gas, Cody decides to make a stand. This final scene is without question the most celebrated in the entire film. It is as good (and explosive) as advertised, further reinforcing Walsh’s skill in creating tense action sequences. The entire oil refinery robbery is well-structured. Walsh does a great job of creating tension, by keeping the audience guessing as to how Vic Pardo is going to manage to alert authorities and keep himself from being discovered as a mole. It is a hard-charging final fifteen minutes to close the film, and the conclusion ranks among the most legendary in Hollywood history. As great as the conclusions to the other three films in this Cagney series are (with Angles With Dirty Faces being my personal favorite), this is the finish that is most likely to pop up in “greatest movie endings” lists.

While Rocky Sullivan is my personal favorite Cagney role, Cody Jarrett may very well be his most memorable. It is a character that sticks with you long after the film has ended. There were certainly evil characters before, but none seem to revel in the sadism as Cody does. It serves to create a very interesting perspective for the viewer. Who is the protagonist in the film? Who is the audience to root for in the contest between the criminals and the federal agents? Other Cagney films present an obvious answer, as even though the lead characters were admitted criminals and gangsters, they were shown to have at least some admirable qualities. This is not the case in White Heat. Outside of love for his mother, Cody possesses none of these. It is quite a feat that Walsh and Cagney are able to make the film work without a true hero for the audience to identify with. Cagney’s performance is so thrilling, that even if you aren’t rooting for Cody to succeed, you’re at the very least fascinated to see how far that he will make it.

Margaret Wycherly turns in an equally chilling performance. She makes Ma Jarrett nearly as vicious as Cody. The relationship between mother and son truly is bizarre. Sometimes it feels a bit over the top, such as the explaining of how the headaches were developed in childhood, but it’s unlike anything else that I’ve ever seen in crime films of the era.


  1. My personal favorite Cagney film by a wide margin. Your assertion that there is no protagonist in White Heat is spot on. O'Brien really comes off as cowardly throughout the film but especially at the end. There is no heroism in his actions during the final scene as he takes pot shots at Cody from a safe distance. Like He Walked By Night the viewer is setup to sympathize with the outlaw and criminal. You find yourself somewhat rooting for Cody or Roy throughout the movie. Roy more because the police are such vague and ephemeral characters, Cody because, as you mention, is so fascinating and interesting a character. I think your placement of White Heat on this list is perfect. If deemed a gangster film I would consider it the best of this era. What I really love about this movie is the hokum factor (prevalent in the gangster genre of this period) is almost nonexistent. Most of the social commentary forced on earlier pictures seems to be totally left out and is the better for it.....M.Roca

  2. Such a great film and other that “Angels With Dirty Faces”, my favorite Cagney film. Here is what I said after your original review.

    “Cagney’s Cody Jarrett is probably the first “modern” gangster. By that I mean he not so much a product of his environment or from an immigrant group forced into crime because that is the only way he can make money. Cody is psychotic, unbalanced, cold blooded, with no remorse whatsoever. Violence is his only resource to resolve problems. In this film, Cagney does not rely on just his screen presences, he truly gives a great performance of some depth.”

    Cody is a homicidal mamma’s boy, a brother to Richard Widmark’s Tommy Udo and the father of future post war psychotic criminals.

  3. Yes Dave, Codey Jarrett is one of James Cagney's most iconic roles, and WHITE HEAT is one of those rare films where you almost feel confident enough to identify all the famous lines and scenes with marked affection. One thinks immediately of the early segment where Jarrett shoots holes in the trunk, to give his prisoner "some air" - a delicious example of black humour - the exlosion in the cafeteria when Cody hears his mother has passed, and the famed "top of the world" conclusion. But there are many more, and both Cagney and (yes) Margaret Wycherly are blood curdling in their portrayals. The film is deliriously entertaining and has richly earned its reputation not only in this genre, but in the whole of American cinema. This is a ranking well earned on this countdown, and your own (updated) passion is infectious (not that anyone needs to be goaded in this instance). Great lead-in reminder there, and revised essay!

  4. Dave, I've been asking people with whom I have been contact before if they want to contribute their favourite image(s) (or the one they find sums up the power of the medium) from Cinema into a combined gallery.

    You can link to it here or at my blog if you want to get involved. If you want to write a short introduction as well, that would be nice.


  5. I don't like James Cagney, but I enjoyed this movie. Margaret Wycherly is unforgettable as his character's mommy dearest...

  6. Well, my favorite Cagney is still Public Enemy and my favorite Walsh is still High Sierra, but White Heat is a little of the best of both worlds. I still say Cagney's work here is a little overrated in the details, but the overall impression lives up to the reputation. The same story could have been told more consistently from Edmond O'Brien's point of view and still have been a great noir, but Cagney's star turn as the villain makes it a more unique film.

  7. I've yet to watch more movies with Cagney, but when I watched White Heat, I really enjoyed it. The cafeteria scene was unforgettable, as well as the infamous 'top of the world' line at the end. :)

  8. M.Roca - Glad to hear this is a favorite. Thanks for the compliments and I too agree that it's placement here just feels right. It's definitely a classic.

    John - Thanks for going through the review a second time! I still rank Angels With Dirty Faces (my favorite) and The Roaring Twenties ahead of it, but this one is right on its heels.

    Sam - Yes, great direction from Walsh throughout and bravura performances abound. Thanks again for the kind words concerning my enthusiasm!

    Stephen - I'd certainly be interested... let me get back to you at the beginning of next week.

    Quirky Character - It's possible to not like Jimmy Cagney?!

    Samuel - I see your point but don't entirely agree... Cagney is too much a part of the experience for me to imagine the movie without him. I put Public Enemy, which is also excellent, behind Angles With Dirty Faces, The Roaring Twenties, and this one, but all four are amazing.

    Miss Go Lightly - Thanks for stopping by! Glad to hear that you had a good experience with this one. I definitely recommend that you check out some of the other Cagney movies that I have mentioned throughout these responses!

  9. OK, Dave.

    I look forward to seeing what you come up with.

  10. I'm just catching up with your countdown, Dave, and am delighted to see you rating this one highly in your noir countdown, as I agree it is one of Cagney's greatest performances - a movie which just seems to get better every time I watch it. The cafeteria scene is amazing. I also think Margaret Wycherley is wonderful, and Virginia Mayo spitting out her chewing gum to be kissed - talk about sleazy. I saw an interview with her where she said Cagney improvised the scene where he kicks the chair away. She commented: "Jimmy just had to change bits of every single scene he was ever in."

    I also like the two other films Raoul Walsh made with Cagney, 'The Strawberry Blonde', with Rita Hayworth and Olivia de Havilland, and 'A Lion is in the Streets', where Cagney plays a corrupt Southern politician - all completely different films from each other, suggesting the range of both Walsh and Cagney.

  11. Along with "Yankee Doodle Dandy", this was one of Cagney's finest role.

    Cody Jarrett set the template for Tommy Devito(GoodFellas),and other deranged gangsters of the last sixty years. Personally, I thought this film was closer to classic gangster movies than Film Noir but regardless, it is seminal viewing.

    Truly Top Of The World....

  12. The film is deliriously entertaining and has richly earned its reputation not only in this genre, but in the whole of American cinema.

  13. 'White Heat' is probably my favourite ever film,I can't remember how many times I've watched it,and in it James Cagney plays,for me,the ultimate anti hero.The viewer can't help liking Cody Jarrett,but you also know that he is a psychopath who will employ violence without a second thought.The nonchalance with which he 'ventilates' the car boot in which gang member Zuckie is in illustrates this perfectly,and was probably very shocking when the film was originally released.As well as the two scenes that you've mentioned as classics,I would also nominate the top of the stairs scene after Jarrett has kicked the lifeless body of Big Ed down the stairs and his then turning to Verna offering her to take his arm.The look of terror on Verna's face,and the look of controlled menace on Cody's,are great shots.I couldn't really say if this is a noir or a gangster,but it just a great film.
    Finally I've just come across this blog and I've really enjoyed what I've read so far,I'll be back for more.